Topic Progress: ## The Lesson Plan – Force And Motion Of An Object

### Standards

Science – SC.5.P.13.1
Identify familiar forces that cause objects to move, such as pushes or pulls, including gravity acting on falling objects.

Language Arts – LAFS.5.RI.2.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Mathematics – MAFS.5.NBT.2.7
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

### Big Idea(s)

Everything in the universe moves. It might only be a small amount of movement, but movement does happen. An object is moving if its position changes. Forces need to act upon an object to get it moving. Changes in motion won’t just happen on their own. How fast an object moves can be influenced by forces? Acceleration is a measure of how much the velocity of an object changes in a certain time.

Newton’s First Law of Motion:

• An object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless a net force acts on it. If an object is at rest, it stays at rest unless a net force acts on it.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion:

• The second law describes the relationship between mass, force and acceleration. The unbalanced force acting on an object equals the object’s mass times its acceleration. We use Newton’s second law to calculate an objects force due to gravity (weight). This is found from the product of an objects mass and the objects free-fall acceleration due to gravity.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion:

• For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s third law state that for every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force. These forces always act on different objects. Action/reaction forces never cancel out. They cannot cancel each other out because they act on different objects. The only time forces cancel out (and add up to zero) is when they act on the same object.

### Essential Question

• What makes objects move?

### Background Information

Motion occurs when an object moves from one place to another. Motion is determined by the forces that act on the object. There are some movements that might cause other movements to take place.  Things change when an object moves at the same speed and/or in a straight line. Things around us are constantly moving and changing.

Terms that go hand in hand with learning about motion:

• Speed
• Velocity
• Acceleration
• Force
• Mass
• Three Laws of Motion

### Guiding Questions

• What makes objects move?
• What is the relationship between force and motion?
• What types of forces can you identify?
• What is needed to start an object moving?
• How does the mass of an object influence motion?
• How does friction affect a moving object?
• How are speed, velocity, and acceleration related?
• What forces cause objects to change their motion?
• How do Newton’s laws explain the principles of force and motion?
• How is momentum related to each of Newton’s 3 laws of motion?

### Math Mania

The three major fossil fuels—petroleum 28.0%, natural gas 31.8%, and coal 17.8% —combined accounted for 77.6% of the U.S. primary energy production in 2017. What percent of the U.S.’s primary energy production did NOT come from these fossil fuels?

23.4%

### Fun Facts

Did you know…

• That everything around us, in the entire universe is actually controlled by force?
• That when you go swimming, you can feel the water pushing back against your arms and legs as you move forward? That’s the invisible force of water resistance at work!
• That roller coasters use the force of gravity to make a rip-roaring ride? Gravity pulls all of the objects in the universe together, and it is the reason people and objects don’t float off this planet into space.